COGNITIVE THEORY OF MULTIMEDIA



"People learn better when multimedia messages are designedin ways that are consistent with how the human mind works and with research-based principles" (Mayer, 2007).
OBJECTIVES:
Understand 3 assumptions
Understand 10 principles
Understand Cognitive Load
Understand and Apply Principles to E-learning

3 Assumptions of Cognitive Theory of Multimedia


1) Dual Channel Assumption: Humans posses one channel for auditory input and a separate channel for visual input.

Presentation Mode:

sensory input.png
Dual Channel Assumption

Information that is verbally presented is constructed in the working memory.

Information that is visually constructed is constructed in the working memory.

Sensory-Modality:
Information that is auditorily presented (narration, background sounds) is processed by the auditory system

Information that is visually presented (pictures, animation, video, on-screen text) is processed by the visual system
(Clker, 2013)

Relationship Between Channels: When cognitive load is low, learners can also process information using the other channel. As an example, when cognitive load is low, a learner may process auditory input but the learner may also be able to visualize the oral presentation and process that oral information using the visual channel.

Imaging that the information presented in these slides is presented orally, as a radio program. If the cognitive load is low then you may also be able to visualize the audio information and process that information through the visual sensory channel. An example would be hearing a radio program but being able to visualize the descriptions. Likewise, if you see the slide and have a low cognitive load then you may be able to hear the information and process the visual information through the audio sensory input.
( Mayer, 2005)

relationship.jpg
Relationship Between Audio and Visual Channels


2) Limited Capacity Assumption: Humans have an innate limitation on the amount of information that can be processed,by each channel, at any one time. Limited Capacity Assumption relates to cognitive load.
For more information on cognitive load view the videos below:



More information on cognitive load theory (CLT) at cognitive load

Cognitive Load Preview from Mathew Mitchell on Vimeo.



Read Mayer's Select, Organize, Integrate (SOI) model @ SOI model

Metacognitive Strategies may be used to adjust for limited cognitive capacity.
For more information on metacognitive strategies, visit the following sites. Reading Strategies, Math Strategies, Elementary School Strategies, University of South Alabama, Purdue

Metacognition: , , , ,

Mayer's on Cognitive and Metacognitive Strategies


3) Active Processing Assumption: Humans actively, cognitively process information so that they may construct a coherent mental representation of an experience.


Dual Coding Theory & Multimedia Learning from Cian Mac Mahon on Vimeo.




To See This Information From a Different Perspective Go To Learning Coach

3 Cognitive Processes of Multimedia Learning :
Selecting: Selecting is a process that is applied to incoming visual and auditory information to provide a text and image base.
Organizing: Organizing is the process that is applied to text base and image base to form a to be explained model.
Integrating: Integrating occurs when the learner builds connections between the events in the verbal and visual model.

Principles of Cognitive Theory Of Multimedia: This listing is not intended to be a comprehensive listing of Multimedia principles. These principles were derived from a PowerPoint presentation by Richard Mayer, nd.


Multimedia Principle: Deeper learning is attained through the use of words and pictures than from the use of words alone.
Learning effect size is 1.90 when compared with a verbal presentation (Mayer, 2003).
(Wedom, 2008)

It is better to present an explanation with two mode such as visual and verbal than one mode (Mayer, 2011). E-learning designers should appeal to both visual as well as oral channels when designing presentations.


Spatial Contiguity Principle: Deeper learning is attained when words and pictures are presented spatially in close proximity. The words and pictures must be in working memory at the same time to facilitate development of schema (Mayer, 2011). Learning effect size is 1.30 (Mayer, 2003, p.63). E-learning designers should place text and visuals in close proximity to each other. This reduces the cognitive load of the learner.



(Dodd, 2011)

Temporal Contiguity Principle: Deeper learning is attained when audio and visual are presented temporally, in close proximity (Mayer, 2003). E-learning designers should place audio and accompanying visuals in close proximity so that the audio provides temporally close explanation for the visual presentation.


(Dodd, 2011)

Coherence Principle: type 1: Deeper learning is attained when irrelevant details are removed from the presentation. Type 2: Deeper learning is attained when irrelevant sounds and music are removed from the presentation. Type 3: Deeper learning is attained when irrelevant words are removed from the presentation (Mayer, 2003). Learning effect is .82 (Mayer, 2003, p.63). E-learning designers should remove all extraneous words, music and sound from presentations. The entire presentation should be produced to emphasize the course objectives.


(Dodd, 2011)

Modality Principle: Deeper learning is attained when words are presented as narration than as onscreen text. Learning effect is 1.17 (Mayer, 2003,p.63). E-learning designers should ensure that spoken words are delivered in a conversational tone and are not repeated onscreen. This reduces cognitive load.


(Dodd, 2011)

Redundancy Principle: Deeper learning is attained when words are presented as narration than as narration and onscreen text (Mayer, 2003). Learning effect is 1.24 (Mayer, 2003, p.63). E-learning designers should ensure that narration is not replicated as onscreen text.


(Dodd, 2011)

Personalization Principle: Deeper learning is attained when words are presented in a conversational manner rather than in a more formal style (Mayer, 2003). Learning effect is .82 (Mayer, 2003, p.63). E-learning designers should use a pleasant conversational informal voice when producing a lesson.


(Dodd, 2011)

Interactivity Principle: Deeper learning is attained when students have control of the pace of the lesson (Mayer, 2003, p.63). Learning effect size is 1.36 (Mayer,nd). E-learning designers should ensure that students have the ability to control the pacing of all learning presentations.



Signaling Principle: Deeper learning is attained when students receive signals that inform then of key steps. Learning effect is .74 (Mayer, 2003, p.63). Learning effect size is .63 (Mayer,nd). E-learning designers should clearly signal important information through the use of clearly understood signals.


(Dodd, 2011)

Individual Differences Principle: Deeper learning is attained when these design principles are applied to low knowledge learners than to high knowledge learners (Mayer, 2003, p.63). Learning effect size is 1.13 (Mayer,nd). E-Learning designers should ensure that introductory presentations, that are intended for low knowledge learners, strictly adhere to multimedia learning principles.

Summation of Multimedia principles:



An Interview with Richard Mayer discussing Multimedia Learning theory:


(O'Donoghue, 2011)

Implications of Multimedia principles for designing e-learning presentations.

Incorporate Multimedia learning theory principles into the design and production of e-learning courses.

E-learning multimedia presentations should include interactive activities such as messaging, chats or other interactive activities (Gier and Kreiner, 2009). The use of these interactive activities is consistent with Medial Richness theory and has been shown to improve student satisfaction with e-learning courses (Shepard and Martz, 2006).

Incorporate strategic pauses into presentations to allow students to consolidate knowledge (Gier adn Kreiner, 2009).

Theoretical Repudiation:

A final thought on the purpose of education: Please note how the various learning theories can be applied to this presentation. Enjoy



Attached are two short annotated bibliographies dealing with CTML and CLT: , .



Reference:

Clker, (2013). The Royalty Free Public Domain Clip Art. Retrieved from
http://www.clker.com/cliparts/5/5/4/9/12065613501907991965cibo00_Auditory_and_Visual_Perception_Schema.svg.med.png

Dodd, B., (2011). Coherence Principle. Retrieved from http://youtu.be/Sfu3FKpSJY0

Dodd, B., (2011). Modality Principle. Retrieved from http://youtu.be/i0GjWwxru6M

Dodd, B., (2011). Personalization Principle. Retrieved from http://youtu.be/Io3uihEHJo4

Dodd, B., (2011). Redundancy Principle. Retrieved from http://youtu.be/22Ge4df5j3A

Dodd, B., (2011). Signally Principle. Retrieved from http://youtu.be/zvHRzgXvWMA

Dodd, B., (2011). Spatial Contiguity Principle. Retrieved from http://youtu.be/pfXLKUmu_Cg

Dodd, B., (2011). Temporal Contiguity Principle. Retrieved from http://youtu.be/xrkokpItL8A

Gier, V., and Kreiner, D., (2009). Incorporating active learning with PowerPoint based lectures using content based questions. Teaching of Psychology, 36, 134-139.

Mayer, Richard, E., (nd). Multimedia Learning. Retrieved from projects.ict.usc.edu/itgs/talks/Mayer_Multimedia%20Principles.ppt

Mayer, Richard, E. and Moreno, Roxana, (2011). A Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning: Implications for Design Principles. Retrieved from www.unm.edu/~moreno/PDFS/chi.pdf.

Mayer, Richard, E., (2007). Multimedia Learning. Retrieved from: asolans.files.wordpress.com/2007/01/multimedialearningmayer.ppt

Mayer, Richard, E., (2005). Cambridge Handbook of Multimedia Learning. New York: Cambridge University Press

Mayer, Richard, E., (2003). Cognitive Theory and the Design of Multimedia Instruction: An example of the Two-Way Street Between Cognition and Instruction. New Directions for Teaching and Learning. 89. 55-71

O'Donoghue, M., (2011, November). On the Role of Design of Video for Learning. Retrieved from http://youtu.be/S3fYg6OuTIA

Shepard, M., and Martz, WM., (2006). Media richness theory and the distance education environment. The Journal of Computer Information Systems. 47, 1, 114-122.

Wendom, (2008). Multimedia Principle. Retrieved from http://youtu.be/3nYXMP4ZVqA